Silva, R. A., Rogers, K. & Buckley, T. J. Advancing Environmental Epidemiology to Assess the Beneficial Influence of the Natural Environment on Human Health and Well- Being. Environmental Science & Technology 52, 9545–9555 (2018).
Markevych, I. et al. Exploring pathways linking greenspace to health: Theoretical and methodological guidance. Environmental Research 158, 301–317 (2017).
Hartig, T., Mitchell, R. J., Vries, Sde & Frumkin, H. Nature and health. Annual Reviews in Public Health 35, 207–228 (2014).
Zhang, J., Yu, Z., Zhao, B., Sun, R. & Vejre, H. Links between green space and public health: A bibliometric review of global research trends and future prospects from 1901 to 2019. Environmental Research Letters 15, 063001–37 (2020).
Taylor, L. & Hochuli, D. F. Defining greenspace: Multiple uses across multiple disciplines. Landscape and Urban Planning 158, 25–28 (2017).
Yang, B.-Y. et al. Greenspace and human health: An umbrella review. Innovation 2, 100164 (2021).
Twohig-Bennett, C. & Jones, A. The health benefits of the great outdoors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of greenspace exposure and health outcomes. Environmental Research 166, 628–637 (2018).
Smith, N. et al. Urban blue spaces and human health: A systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative studies. Cities 119, 103413 (2021).
Gascon, M., Zijlema, W. L., Vert, C., White, M. P. & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220, 1207–1221 (2017).
Li, H. et al. Beyond “bluespace” and “greenspace”: A narrative review of possible health benefits from exposure to other natural landscapes. Sci Total Environ 159292, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159292 (2022).
Rugel, E. J., Henderson, S. B., Carpiano, R. M. & Brauer, M. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research. Environmental Research 159, 474–483 (2017).
Wheeler, B. W. et al. Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality. International Journal of Health Geographics 14, 11–17 (2015).
Helbich, M., Poppe, R., Oberski, D., van Emmichoven, M. Z. & Schram, R. Can’t see the wood for the trees? An assessment of street view- and satellite-derived greenness measures in relation to mental health. Landscape Urban Plan 214, 104181 (2021).
Holland, I. et al. Measuring nature contact: A narrative review. Int J Environ Res Pu 18, 4092 (2021).
Labib, S. M., Lindley, S. & Huck, J. J. Spatial dimensions of the influence of urban green-blue spaces on human health: A systematic review. Environmental Research 180, 108869 (2020).
Jackson, R. D. & Huete, A. R. Interpreting vegetation indices. Preventive Veterinary Medicine (1991).
Rhew, I. C., Stoep, A. V., Kearney, A., Smith, N. L. & Dunbar, M. D. Validation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a Measure of Neighborhood Greenness. Annals of Epidemiology 21, 946–952 (2011).
Labib, S. M., Lindley, S. & Huck, J. J. Scale effects in remotely sensed greenspace metrics and how to mitigate them for environmental health exposure assessment. Comput Environ Urban Syst 82, 101501 (2020).
Browning, M. H. E. M., Rigolon, A., McAnirlin, O. & Yoon, H. (Violet). Where greenspace matters most: A systematic review of urbanicity, greenspace, and physical health. Landscape Urban Plan 217, 104233 (2022).
Ekkel, E. D. & Vries, Sde Nearby green space and human health: Evaluating accessibility metrics. Landscape and Urban Planning 157, 214–220 (2017).
Dzhambov, A. M., Lercher, P., Rüdisser, J., Browning, M. H. E. M. & Markevych, I. Allergic symptoms in association with naturalness, greenness, and greyness: A cross-sectional study in schoolchildren in the Alps. Environ Res 198, 110456 (2020).
Kumari, N. et al. The Grass Is Not Always Greener on the Other Side: Seasonal Reversal of Vegetation Greenness in Aspect‐Driven Semiarid Ecosystems. Geophys Res Lett 47 (2020).
Helbich, M. Spatiotemporal Contextual Uncertainties in Green Space Exposure Measures: Exploring a Time Series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices. Int J Environ Res Pu 16, 852 (2019).
Su, J. G., Dadvand, P., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Bartoll, X. & Jerrett, M. Associations of green space metrics with health and behavior outcomes at different buffer sizes and remote sensing sensor resolutions. Environment International 126, 162–170 (2019).
O’Neil-Dunne, J., MacFaden, S. & Royar, A. A Versatile, Production-Oriented Approach to High-Resolution Tree-Canopy Mapping in Urban and Suburban Landscapes Using GEOBIA and Data. Fusion. Remote Sens-basel 6, 12837–12865 (2014).
O’Neil-Dunne, J. P. M., MacFaden, S. W., Royar, A. R. & Pelletier, K. C. An object-based system for LiDAR data fusion and feature extraction. Geocarto International 28, 227–242 (2012).
MacFaden, S. W., O’Neil-Dunne, J. P. M., Royar, A. R., Lu, J. W. T. & Rundle, A. G. High-resolution tree canopy mapping for New York City using LIDAR and object-based image analysis. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 6, 063567-1–063567–23 (2012).
Orians, G. H. Habitat selection: General theory and applications for human behavior. In (ed. Lockard, J. S.) The evolution of human social behavior.49–66 (Elsevier Science Limited, 1980).
Townsend, J. B. & Barton, S. The Impact of Ancient Tree Form on Modern Landscape Preferences. Urban For Urban Gree 34, 205–216 (2018).
Locke, D. H., Ossola, A., Minor, E. & Lin, B. B. Spatial contagion structures urban vegetation from parcel to landscape. People Nat, https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10254 (2021).
Ossola, A., Locke, D. H., Lin, B. & Minor, E. Greening in style: Urban form, architecture and the structure of front and backyard vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 185, 141–157 (2019).
Shahtahmassebi, A. et al. Remote sensing of urban green spaces: a review. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 126946, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126946 (2020).
He, N. & Li, G. Urban neighbourhood environment assessment based on street view image processing: A review of research trends. Environ Challenges 100090 (2021).
Labib, S. M. Estimating multiple greenspace exposure types and their associations with neighbourhood premature mortality: A socioecological study. Sci Total Environ 147919, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147919 (2021).
Wang, R. et al. Visible green space predicts emotion: Evidence from social media and street view data. Appl Geogr 148, 102803 (2022).
Zhang, J. et al. Is indoor and outdoor greenery associated with fewer depressive symptoms during COVID-19 lockdowns? A mechanistic study in Shanghai, China. Build Environ 109799, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2022.109799 (2022).
Zhang, R., Wulff, H., Duan, Y. & Wagner, P. Associations between the physical environment and park-based physical activity: A systematic review. J Sport Health Sci 8, 412–421 (2019).
McCormack, G. R., Rock, M., Toohey, A. M. & Hignell, D. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: A review of qualitative research. Health Place 16, 712–726 (2010).
Cohen, D. A. et al. The First National Study of Neighborhood Parks. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 51, 419–426 (2016).
Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Khreis, H., Triguero-Mas, M., Gascon, M. & Dadvand, P. Fifty shades of green. Epidemiology 28, 63–71 (2017).
Becker, D. A., Browning, M. H., McAnirlin, O., Yuan, S. & Helbich, M. Is Green Space Associated with Opioid-Related Mortality? An Ecological Study at the U.S. County Level. Urban For Urban Gree 127529, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2022.127529 (2022).
Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. Green infrastructure and health. Annual Review of Public Health 42, 317-328 (2021).
Environmental Systems Research Institute. USA Parks. https://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=578968f975774d3fab79fe56c8c90941 (2022).
Open Street Map Foundation. OpenStreetMap About. https://www.openstreetmap.org/about (2022).
Ludwig, C., Fendrich, S. & Zipf, A. Regional variations of context‐based association rules in OpenStreetMap. T Gis 25, 602–621 (2021).
Trust for Public Land. ParkServe® Data Downloads. https://www.tpl.org/parkserve/downloads (2022).
U.S. Geological Survey. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) 2.1.U.S. Geological Survey.https://doi.org/10.5066/P955KPLE (2020).
Browning, M. H. E. M. et al. PAD-US-AR. OSF, https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/pwdsg (2022).
Ogletree, S. S., Powell, R. B., Baldwin, R. F. & Leonard, P. B. A framework for mapping cultural resources in landscape conservation planning. Conservation Science and Practice 1, e41–11 (2019).
Theobald, D. M. Development and Applications of a Comprehensive Land Use Classification and Map for the US. Plos One 9, e94628 (2014).
Belote, R. T. et al. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States. PLOS ONE 11, e0154223–16 (2016).
Walls, M., Lee, P. & Ashenfarb, M. National monuments and economic growth in the American West. Science Advances 6, eaay8523 (2020).
Martinuzzi, S. et al. Scenarios of future land use change around United States’ protected areas. Biol Conserv 184, 446–455 (2015).
Sohl, T. L. et al. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992–2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States. Ecol Appl 24, 1015–1036 (2014).
Dietz, M. S., Belote, R. T., Aplet, G. H. & Aycrigg, J. L. The world’s largest wilderness protection network after 50 years: An assessment of ecological system representation in the U.S. National Wilderness Preservation System. Biol Conserv 184, 431–438 (2015).
Rice, W. L., Newman, P., Miller, Z. D. & Taff, B. D. Protected areas and noise abatement: A spatial approach. Landscape and Urban Planning 194, 103701–9 (2020).
Buxton, R. T. et al. Noise pollution is pervasive in U.S. protected areas. Science 356, 531–533 (2017).
Tsai, W.-L. et al. Types and spatial contexts of neighborhood greenery matter in associations with weight status in women across 28 U.S. communities. Environ Res 111327 (2021).
Tsai, W.-L., Davis, A. J. S. & Jackson, L. E. Associations between types of greenery along neighborhood roads and weight status in different climates. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 1–44 (2019).
National Conservation Easement Database. https://www.conservationeasement.us (2022).
US Army Corp of Engineers. Value to the Nation Value to the Nation. Recreation https://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/Missions/Value-to-the-Nation/Recreation/ (2022).
Locke, D. H. United States census block groups converted to singlepart polygons and with water removed, 2013-2017. https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/catalog/RDS-2022-0054 (2022).
Browning, M. H. E. M. & Rigolon, A. Could nature help children rise out of poverty? Green space and future earnings from a cohort in ten U.S. cities. Environmental Research 176, 1–13 (2019).
Wolch, J., Wilson, J. P. & Fehrenbach, J. Parks and Park Funding in Los Angeles: An Equity-Mapping Analysis. Urban Geogr 26, 4–35 (2013).
Rigolon, A. Parks and young people: An environmental justice study of park proximity, acreage, and quality in Denver, Colorado. Landscape Urban Plan 165, 73–83 (2017).
Dewitz, J. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2016 Products. U.S. Geological Survey. https://doi.org/10.5066/P96HHBIE (2019).
Census, U. S. Bureau. American Community Survey Data. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data.html (2020).
Williams, T. G., Logan, T. M. & Zuo, C. T. Parks and safety: A comparative study of green space access and inequity in five US cities. Landscape and Urban Planning (2020).
Pham, T.-T.-H., Apparicio, P., Séguin, A.-M., Landry, S. & Gagnon, M. Spatial distribution of vegetation in Montreal: An uneven distribution or environmental inequity? Landscape Urban Plan 107, 214–224 (2012).
Li, X., Zhang, C., Li, W. & Kuzovkina, Y. A. Environmental inequities in terms of different types of urban greenery in Hartford, Connecticut. Urban For Urban Gree 18, 163–172 (2016).
Rigolon, A. A complex landscape of inequity in access to urban parks: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning 153, 160–169 (2016).
Nesbitt, L., Meitner, M. J., Girling, C., Sheppard, S. R. J. & Lu, Y. Who has access to urban vegetation? A spatial analysis of distributional green equity in 10 US cities. Landscape and Urban Planning 181, 51–79 (2019).
Commission, E. A recommendation on the method to delineate cities, urban and rural areas for international statistical comparisons. https://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/51st-session/documents/BG-Item3j-Recommendation-E.pdf (2020).
Larson, L. R. et al. Greenspace and park use associated with less emotional distress among college students in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Environ Res 112367, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112367 (2021).
Chakraborty, T., Hsu, A., Manya, D. & Sheriff, G. A spatially explicit surface urban heat island database for the United States: Characterization, uncertainties, and possible applications. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 168, 74–88 (2020).
Hull, R. B. How the public values urban forests. Journal of Arboriculture (1992).
Suchocka, M. et al. Old trees are perceived as a valuable element of the municipal forest landscape. Peerj 10, e12700 (2022).
Hofmann, M., Gerstenberg, T. & Gillner, S. Predicting tree preferences from visible tree characteristics. Eur J Forest Res 136, 421–432 (2017).
Olmsted, F. L. Trees in streets and in parks. In The highest value of a park (1882).
Robinson, W. S. Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals. American Sociological Review 15, 351–357 (1950).
Fowler, C. S., Frey, N., Folch, D. C., Nagle, N. & Spielman, S. Who are the People in my Neighborhood?: The “Contextual Fallacy” of Measuring Individual Context with Census Geographies. Geographical Analysis 31, 461–14 (2019).
Talen, E. Neighborhoods as Service Providers: A Methodology for Evaluating Pedestrian Access. Environ Plan B Plan Des 30, 181–200 (2001).
Ludwig, C., Hecht, R., Lautenbach, S., Schorcht, M. & Zipf, A. Mapping Public Urban Green Spaces Based on OpenStreetMap and Sentinel-2 Imagery Using Belief Functions. Isprs Int Geo-inf 10, 251 (2021).
Venter, Z. S. et al. Is green space associated with reduced crime? A national-scale study from the Global South. Sci Total Environ 825, 154005 (2022).
Kraemer, R. & Kabisch, N. Parks in context: advancing citywide spatial quality assessments of urban green spaces using fine-scaled indicators. Ecol Soc 26 (2021).
Zhou, Y., Lengerke, Tvon & Dreier, M. Comparing different data sources by examining the associations between surrounding greenspace and children’s weight status. Int J Health Geogr 20, 24 (2021).